Sao Miguel Island, Azores
37.77 N, 25.47 W
summit elevation 947 m
Agua de Pau Volcano is located in the middle of Sao Miguel Island, Azores. Agua de Pau volcano occupies an area of about 150 sq km.
A 2.5 x 3 km caldera formed 15,000 years ago and is filled by Lake Lagoa do Fogo (Fire Lake). The crater walls are 300 m high. The subaerial volume of the volcano is about 80 cubic km. The remains of an older caldera, about 7 x 4 km across, is visible on the western, northern, and eastern sides of the volcano.
Hot springs with temperatures near boiling point, are located on the northwestern flank of Agua de Pau.
A swarm of small earthquakes and weak harmonic tremor, occurred beneath the NE flank of Agua de Pau Volcano on 23-24 May 1988. Another swarm of small swarm of small earthquakes occurred 24-26 June 1988 on the S flank of Agua de Pau. A third swarm of micro earthquakes occurred 6 July 1988 near the south coast of Sao Miguel.
During this eruption the current Lagoa do Fogo was formed as a result of collapse of Agua de Pau caldera.
1564 Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1563 Caldera, NW flank (Cerro Queimado)
700 AD ± 150 WNW flank (Mos)
160 AD ± 150 NW flank (251 m)
1290 BC? Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1850 BC ± 500 East flank (Lagoa do Congro)
2210 BC ± 150 East flank (East Congo maar)
2990 BC? Lagoa do Fogo caldera and north flank
4550 BC ± 100 SW flank (449 m)
6750 BC ± 200 West flank (Pico Joao Fernandes)