John Seach, Volcano Live

Black Smoker

A Black Smoker is an oceanic ridge vent which produces a plume of hydrothermal fluids
with black sulphide particles. It is a type of undersea solfatara. Temperatures are usually > 330 deg C.
There are 35 active undersea hydrothermal vents confirmed and probably millions in total.

Black smoker
Copyright John Seach