19.03 N, 97.26 W
summit elevation 5675 m
Pico de Orizaba is Mexico's highest mountain. The volcano is located on an important normal fault zone that marks out the Altiplano from the Mexico Gulf coastal plains.
The volcano is located at the southern end of Citlaltépetl–Cofre de Perote Volcanic Range, and is the only historically active volcano in the area. The edifice of Citlaltépetl volcano consists of three superimposed stratovolcanoes and dome intrusions.
The cone-building stages include: the Torrecillas (650–250 ka), Espolón de Oro (210– 16 ka), and Citlaltépetl (16 ka to present) stages.
Eruptions consist of explosions and lava flows. Currently there is no fumarolic activity at the summit. An eruption of Pico de Orizaba in 1687 produced andesitic grey ash. Small block-lava flows were erupted between 1537 and 1613.
Periodic pyroclastic eruptions of the St. Vicent type occur at 1000 - 2000 year intervals.
Eruptions of Pico de Orizaba Volcano
1545. 1566, 1630 and 1687. Central crater eruptions- Normal explosions.
1537, 1545, 1556 and 1613. Lava-flows- andesite - central crater.
3400 years ago. SE summit cone, lava flows.
4060 years ago. NE summit cone, pummice air fall.
6200 years ago. Loma Grande 94°14' W, 18°55' N
7020 years ago. Coscomatepec. 97°05' W, 18° 58' N.
9400 years ago. Teteltzingo. 97°06'30" W, 18°58 ' N
10600 years ago. NE Summit cone. Ash and pumice.
12900 years ago. Chocaman.
1846, 1687, 1630, 1613, 1569, 1566, 1545-65?, 1537