Kermadec Islands, New Zealand
29.27 S, 177.92 W
summit elevation 516 m
Raoul Island is triangular shaped, with a 3.3 km wide caldera. The island is the most northern, and largest of the Kermadec Islands.
Raoul is the summit of a large submerged massif about 35 km by 20 km.
The island covers 30 sq km in area (10 x 6km). Raoul island contains three lakes (Blue, Green, and Tui).
Eruptions at Raoul volcano have produced a complex history of events. A change from effusive to explosive eruptions occurred about 3700 years ago. Raoul Island is the only subareal volcano in the Kermadec Islands with series of felsic eruptions over a long time.
Raoul Island contains two collapse structures. Raoul Caldera is 3 x 2 km across and is located in the centre of the island; Denham Caldera (6 x 4 km) is in the western edge of the island and is mostly submarine.
A magnitide 6.5 earthquake hit 140 km SE of the volcano on 5th October 2008.
A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit 70 km SSE of Raoul Island at 3:19 am on Tuesday 30th September 2008.
An eruption occurred at Raoul Island on 17th March 2006. The eruption destroyed about 12 acres of bush, and emitted boulders, rocks and ash. Ashfall covered half the island.
Between 9-11 March 1993 more than 300 earthquakes were measured at the volcano, with maximum magnitude 4.3.
Rising pumice observed in Denham Caldera on 19–20 November 1964. In Raoul Caldera between November 1964 and January 1965: Discoloured water in Green Lake on 19th November, water-level 6 m above normal, new hot springs, 30 min phreatic eruption from craters on 21st November, mud and boiling water ejected untill early 1965.
In March 1886 pumice was observed rising from 240 m high seamount (summit -560 m), 7.5 km NE of Raoul Island.
Eruption in Denham caldera between June-October 1870 which destroyed two small islands which formed in 1814.
Tremors and fumes detected. Settlers in Denham Bay evacuated Raoul Island.
Between March and May 1814, an island 5 km in circumference emerged from 80 m deep water in Denham Caldera.
2006, 1964-65, 1886, 1870, 1814