(El Viejo or Chinendega))
12.70 N, 87.00 W
summit elevation 1745 m
Note: There is another volcano with the same name in Galapagos islands.
San Cristobal volcano is located 110 km WSW of the capital, Managua. It is the highest volcano in Nicaragua. Historical eruption have consisted of small to moderate explosions.
San Cristobal volcano complex consists of 5 volcanic areas.
San Cristobal, El Chonco, Volcan Casita, Moyotepe, La Pelona caldera. In 1998 there was a catastrophic landslide and lahar from Casita causing 1560 deaths, during Hurricane Mitch.
When first seen by the Spaniards in 1528 the volcano was very active and was reported to have given off "flames".
Eruptions occurred at San Cristobal volcano on 8th September 2012. Ash emissions reached 5000 m above the crater rim, and drifted 50 km west-north-west. Sulphur dioxide emissions reached 3200 tons per day compare to a normal emission of 550-700 tons per day. On the northwest sector of the volcano incandescent material caused burns to six livestock. San Cristobal volcano erupted on 25th December 2012, after increasing seismicity the previous day. Moderate explosions ejected ash and gas 2500 m above the crater. Light winds resulted in ashfall close to the volcano. Satellite images did not show a hotspot over the volcano. Ash emissions extended west to the Pacific Ocean.
San Cristobal volcano began erupting on 22nd November, accompanied by earthquakes up to magnitude 4. Five days previously there was a magnitude 5 earthquake 120 km SW of the volcano. A series of small explosions occurred at San Cristobal Volcano on 11th July 2008. The eruptions were preceded by seismic activity.
In 1864 Dampier reported that San Cristobal volcano "smoked during the day and in the night flamed".
2012, 2011, 2009, 2008, 2006, 2002-3, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1897?, 1985?, 1977, 1976, 1976, 1971, 1685, 1684, 1680, 1613?, 1528