19.108 N, 99.758 W
summit elevation 4690 m
Nevado de Toluca Volcano is a strongly eroded central stratovolcano located about 80 km WSW of Mexico City within the 1,000 km-long Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcano is the fourth highest mountain in Mexico.
The northern flank of the volcano rises 2015 m above the Lerma River basin, and the southern flank rises 2900 m above Ixtapan de la Sal village.
The crater of Nevado de Toluca shows the remains of two partial collapses of the volcano on the NE and SE flanks. The volcano has formed at the intersection of three fault systems with NW-SE, NE-SW, and E-W orientations.
During the late Pleistocene (about 1 million years ago) the southern flank of the volcano collapsed twice. Avalanche depost have been found up to 55 km from the summit. The surface of the volcano has been carved by glacier activity during the past 10,000 years.
The formation of the current volcano edifice began about 100,000 years ago. The most recent eruption at Nevado de Toluca Volcano occurred in the central crater about 3300 years ago. The volcano is considered dormant, but not yet extinct.
3300 BP, 10,500 BP, 12,100 BP, 21,700 BP, 36,000 BP.